The United Kingdom and the European Union (EU) have published their revised agreements on the future relationship following the UK’s withdrawal from the bloc, pledging again a “deep and flexible partnership” in areas including defence and “to consider” ongoing co-operation in areas such as joint programmes and research and development (R&D).

The revised withdrawal agreement and related political declaration were released on 17 October.


While the defence- and security-sector aspirations in the political declaration remain unchanged from its first incarnation of November 2018, the withdrawal agreement in respect to Northern Ireland has shifted following the agreement’s repeated rejection by the UK parliament at the start of this year.